This and that.
1. Today’s Kazakhstan special report in the FT. Summary: oil, Nazarbayev, grand architecture, and, um, oil.
2. Ryanair extends its “lowest price guarantee” through September 30. The guarantee has 11 stipulations. Best of luck.
4. Starting August 16, Norwegian Air Shuttle will be flying between Oslo and Moscow three times a week. The cheapest roundtrip fares we’re seeing is NOK2485 (€312; $419). Norwegian’s Oslo-Moscow route ends on October 25.